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Diabetes treatment or controlling the blood sugar level is the main target to keep yourself free from all risk factors of diseases in your body. Diabetes treatment can be done by oral medication or injecting artificial insulin hormone. Besides this, follow a regular diet and exercise is mandatory for wellness and good health for diabetic patients.
In our previous article, we have discussed everything about diabetes. If you have no idea what are the risk factors, reason, diagnosis of diabetes, then read the previous article. Link in the below
Type 2 diabetes is more frequent than type 1 diabetes. 90-95% have type 2 diabetes. The percentage of people with diabetes increases with age.
Treatment of type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes Treatment includes:
- Taking insulin
- Macromolecules(carbs, fats, and protein) counting
- Frequent blood glucose level monitoring
- Eating nutritious foods
- Exercising on a regular basis and maintaining a proper weight
The goal is to stay your blood glucose level as normal as possible to delay or prevent complications.
Insulin Hormone And other medicines
Anyone who has type 1 diabetes needs lifetime insulin therapy.
Types of insulin are many and include:
- Short-acting (regular) insulin (Humulin R and Novolin R)
- Rapid-acting insulin [insulin glulisine (Apidra), insulin lispro (Humalog) and insulin aspart (Novolog)]
- Intermediate-acting (NPH) insulin [insulin NPH (Novolin N, Humulin N)]
- Long-acting insulin[ insulin glargine (Lantus, Toujeo Solostar), insulin detemir (Levemir) and insulin degludec (Tresiba)].
Patients will use a fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen to inject insulin under your skin. Insulin pens look almost like ink pens and are available in disposable or refillable varieties.
If you select injections, you will probably need a mix of insulin types to use throughout the day and night.
An insulin pump
The patients wear this device, which is about the dimensions of a cell phone, on the surface of the body. A small tube connects a reservoir of insulin to a catheter that’s inserted under the skin of your abdomen. This sort of pump is often worn during a sort of way, like on your waistband.
There’s also an option for a wireless pump. He/she wear a pod that houses the insulin reservoir on your body that features a tiny catheter that’s inserted under your skin. The insulin pod is often worn on the abdomen, lower back, or on a leg or an arm. The programming is completed with communication between the wireless device and the pod.
Anyone program the pump with the number of carbohydrates you’re eating and your current blood glucose, and it’ll offer you what’s called a bolus dose of insulin to hide your meal and to correct your blood glucose. In some people, an insulin pump is often simpler at controlling blood glucose levels than injections. But many of us achieve good blood glucose levels with injections, too. An insulin pump combined with an endless glucose monitoring (CGM) device may provide even tighter blood glucose.
The primary artificial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes who are age 14 and older. It is also called closed-loop insulin delivery. The implanted device links an endless glucose monitor, which checks blood glucose levels every five minutes, to an insulin pump. The device automatically delivers the right amount of insulin hormone.
Although artificial pancreas is not easily available and this process is in the clinical trials.
Additional medications also could also be prescribed for people with type 1 diabetes, such as:
High vital sign medications
These medications are recommended for people with type 2 diabetes who have blood pressures above 140/90 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg).
Aspirin: Your doctor may recommend you’re taking a baby or regular aspirin daily to guard your heart.
Cholesterol-lowering medicine: Cholesterol measurement is more aggressive for people with diabetes due to the elevated risk of a heart condition. The American Diabetes Association recommends that LDL (LDL, or “bad”) cholesterol be below 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L). Triglycerides, another sort of blood fat, are ideal when they’re but 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L).
Blood sugar monitoring: Depending on what sort of insulin therapy you decide on or require, you’ll have to check and record your blood glucose level a minimum of fourfold each day.
The doctors recommend testing blood glucose levels before meals and snacks, before bed, before exercising or driving, and if you think you’ve got low blood glucose. Careful monitoring is the only thanks to confirming that your blood glucose level remains within your firing range — and more frequent monitoring can lower A1C levels.
Even if you’re taking insulin and eat a rigid schedule, blood glucose levels can change unpredictably. He will find out how your blood glucose level changes in response to food, activity, illness, medications, stress, hormonal changes, and alcohol.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is the newest thanks to monitoring blood glucose levels and should be especially helpful for preventing hypoglycemia. When employed by people older than 25, the devices are shown to lower A1C.
Continuous glucose monitors attach to the body employing a fine needle slightly below the skin that checks blood sugar level every jiffy. CGM isn’t yet considered as accurate as standard blood glucose monitoring, so at this point, it’s still important to see your blood glucose levels manually.
Healthy eating and monitoring carbohydrates
There’s no such thing as a diabetes diet. It is main to centre your diet on nutritious, low-fat, high-fiber foods such as:
- Whole grains
Your dietitian will recommend that you simply eat fewer animal products and refined carbohydrates, like light bread and sweets. This healthy-eating plan is suggested even for people without diabetes.
You’ll need to find out the way to count the number of carbohydrates within the foods you eat in order that you’ll give yourself enough insulin to properly metabolize those carbohydrates. A registered dietitian can assist you to create a hotel plan that matches your needs.
Treatment of type 2 Diabetes
Management of type 2 diabetes includes:
- Weight loss
- Healthy eating
- Regular exercise
- Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy
- Blood sugar monitoring
These steps will help keep your blood glucose level closer to normal, which may delay or prevent complications.
- Weight loss
Losing weight can lower your blood glucose levels. Losing just 5% to 10% of your weight can make a difference, although a sustained weight loss of seven percent or more of your initial weight seems to be ideal. Meaning someone who weighs 82 kilograms would wish to lose a touch but 5.9 kilograms to form an impression on blood glucose.
Controlling portions of food and eating healthy foods are simple ways to start out taking the weight off.
2. Healthy eating
Contrary to popular perception, there is no specific diabetes diet.I t is vital to center your diet around:
- Fewer calories
- Fewer refined carbohydrates, especially sweets
- Fewer foods containing saturated fats
- More vegetables and fruits
- More foods with fibre
A registered dietitian can assist you to put together a hotel plan that matches your health goals, food preferences, and lifestyle. He/she will also teach you ways to watch your carbohydrate intake and allow you to realize what percentage carbohydrates you would like to eat together with your meals and snacks to stay your blood glucose levels more stable.
3. Physical activity
Everyone needs regular aerobics and other people who have type 2 diabetes. Get your doctor’s advice before starting an exercise program. Choose activities you enjoy, like walking, swimming, and biking, in order that you’ll make them a part of your daily routine.
Aim for a minimum of 30 to an hour of moderate (or 15 to a half-hour of vigorous) aerobics most days of the week. a mixture of exercises — aerobic exercises, like walking or dancing on most days, combined with resistance training, like weightlifting or yoga twice every week — offers more benefits.
Remember that physical activity lowers blood glucose. You would possibly get to eat a snack before exercising to assist prevent low blood glucose if you’re taking diabetes medications that lower your blood glucose.
It’s also important to scale back the quantity of the time you spend in inactive activities, like watching TV. attempt to move around a touch every half-hour.
4. Monitoring your blood glucose
Depending on your treatment plan, you’ll have to check and record your blood glucose level. Ask your doctor how often he/she wants you to see your blood glucose. Careful monitoring is the only thanks to confirming that your blood glucose level remains within your firing range.
5. Diabetes medications and insulin therapy
Some people that have type 2 diabetes are able to do their target blood glucose levels with diet and regular exercise, but many also need diabetes medicines or insulin. The choice about which medications are best depends on many factors, including your blood glucose level and the other health problems you’ve got.
Example of treatments for type 2 diabetes:
Normally, metformin is the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It works by lowering glucose production within the liver and improving your body’s sensitivity to insulin in order that your body uses insulin.
Vomiting and diarrhea can be the side effects of metformin. These side effects may getaway as your body gets won’t to the drugs or if you’re taking the drugs with the meal. If medicines and lifestyle changes are not enough to regulate your blood glucose level, other oral or injected medications are often added.
Medications during this drug class may reduce the danger of attack and stroke in people with a high risk of these conditions. Side effects may include vaginal yeast infections, tract infections, low vital signs, and a better risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. Canagliflozin, but not the opposite drugs within the class, has been related to increased risk of lower limb amputation.
Insulin. Some people that have type 2 diabetes need insulin therapy. Within the past, insulin therapy was used as a final resort, but today it’s often prescribed sooner due to its benefits. Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) may be a possible side effect of insulin.
Normal digestion disturbs with insulin taken orally, so insulin must be injected. counting on your needs, your doctor may prescribe a mix of insulin types to use throughout the day and night.
Discuss the good and bad of various drugs together with your doctor. In addition to diabetes medications, the doctor might prescribe low-dose aspirin therapy also as a vital sign and cholesterol-lowering medication to assist prevent heart and vessel disease.
If you’ve got type 2 diabetes and your body mass index (BMI) is bigger than 35, you will get weight-loss surgery (bariatric surgery). Dramatic improvements in blood glucose levels are often seen in people with type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery, counting on the procedure performed. Surgeries that bypass some of the tiny intestines have more of an impact on blood glucose levels than do other weight-loss surgeries.
Surgery drawbacks include its high-cost risks, including a little risk of death. It also requires a big lifestyle change. Longtime complications may include nutritional deficiencies and osteoporosis.